Showing posts with label Blog Master Recommended Reading. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Blog Master Recommended Reading. Show all posts

3 February 2018

2018 Review of Ongoing Wars Around the Globe

Islamic terrorism no longer dominates the news, but one of its primary causes, reviving ancient empires, still is. This a common thread with all the major troublemakers in the early 21 st century (and most of the 20 th ). This is an ancient curse that has reappeared recently in multiple forms. Some of these efforts are more media friendly than others but all share the same characteristics; mobilizing popular support for rebuilding lost empires. The most obvious one (the Islamic caliphate) grabs most of the headlines because Islamic terrorism has been a common symptom of desperate, longshot efforts to restore the caliphate for a long time (over a thousand years). As a religion based empire (“Islam” literally means “submission”) that has been hostile to any kind of progress (especially technology, economic or religious) past revival efforts have been unsuccessful. Thus the quick and brutal demise of ISIL (Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant) because it also tried to use self-righteous fanaticism as its primary weapon and motivation in a world that was largely hostile to such a

2 February 2018

18 Cyber Security Trends We Are Watching in 2018


by Joey 

We had an interesting year in 2017. If any trend is obvious, it’s that 2018 will continue to be interesting for the cybersec industry. How interesting? Here is are the 18 trends that we think will be making the headlines and should be on your radar for 2018.

The Return of the Spam

In 2004 Bill Gates said that spam would be dead in 2 years. Over a decade later, things are still pretty bad. While we can stop greater than 99.95% of spam email, it’s the very few that do get through that are increasingly sophisticated and preying

Welcome to 2030. I own nothing, have no privacy, and life has never been better

Ida Auken

Welcome to the year 2030. Welcome to my city - or should I say, "our city". I don't own anything. I don't own a car. I don't own a house. I don't own any appliances or any clothes.

It might seem odd to you, but it makes perfect sense for us in this city. Everything you considered a product, has now become a service. We have access to transportation, accommodation, food and all the things we need in our daily lives. One by one all these things became free, so it ended up not making sense for us to own much. 

1 February 2018

5 predictions for what life will be like in 2030

By Mike Moradi

Fourth Industrial Revolution 

You are just waking up in the spring of 2030. Your Internet of Things bedroom opens solar powered e-windows and plays gentle music while your smart lighting displays a montage of beachfront sunrises from your recent vacation. 

How Cyberwarfare Will Evolve Over 2018


Cyberwarfare is out of the shadows, USA and UK have declared cyber warfare against ISIS officially. Large number of countries are developing cyber warfare capabilities. While cyber weapons were mostly developed and used by intelligence agencies as part of secret missions, they are now becoming an acknowledged military option during conflicts. Here are predictions about how cyberwarfare will evolve over the next year.

The cyber arms race will accelerate 

31 January 2018

2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report

This is from ORF website : http://www.orfonline.org/orf-ranked-best-indian-think-tank-asian-region/



Observer Research Foundation (ORF) once again led the Indian think tanks in Asia in the latest Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, released globally today, retaining the leadership in Indian think tanks.

ORF also became the largest ranked institution from Asia with 25 appearances in various categories in the 2017 Index, prepared by the Pennsylvania University.

In the China, India, Japan and Republic of Korea region, ORF has been ranked 5th, ahead of Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (7th), Centre for Civil Society (14th), Delhi Policy Group (16th), Centre for Policy Research (18th), Indian Council for Research in International Economic Relations (21st) and Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations (26th).

In this category, Centre for Study Science, Technology and Policy came 29th, Development Alternatives 30th, Energy and Resources Institute 33rd, Centre for Land Warfare Studies 37th and the Vivekananda Foundation 41st, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies 46th, Institute of Economic Growth 48th, Indian Council of World Affairs 50th, United Service Institution of India 55th, Hindu Centre for Politics 58th and Council on Energy, Environment and Water 62nd.

Korea Development Institute also retained its position as the number one in this category, while Japan Institute of International Affairs was once again second.

ORF also jumped 16 points in the world ranking list as it finished 114 in the latest index, as against 130 last year. In the ‘Top Think Tanks Worldwide (non-US)’ too, ORF finished 35th. IDSA came 28th. Brookings India was 119th, Gateway 126th and USI 132nd.

Brookings Institution, USA, continued to be world number one while the French Institute of International Relations dethroned Chatham House, UK, from the second rank. Carnegie Endowment, USA, retained the third position.

In the world’s ‘Top Defence and National Security’ category, IDSA was ranked 37th while ORF came 46th, ahead of Centre for Land Warfare Studies (67th) and the USI (104th).

In the ‘Top Domestic Economic Policy Think Tanks’, ORF came 120th, the fifth highest ranked in India. ICRIER came 68th, Institute of Economic Growth 106th, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research 112nd and National Council of Applied Economic Research 119th.

In the ‘Top Education Policy Think Tanks’, ORF came 59th, and the only Indian think tank in the list.

In the ‘Top Energy and Resource Policy Think Tanks’, ORF has been ranked 34th, well ahead of Centre for Science and Environment 38th and Council on Energy, Environment and Water 40th.

ORF also came as the top Indian think tank in the ‘Top Foreign Policy and International Affairs Think Tanks’, coming at 37th, much ahead of IPCS (80th), Delhi Policy Group (105), Gateway House (111), Indian Council of World Affairs (115) and the IDSA (117).

In the ‘Top Domestic Health Policy Think Tanks’, Institute of Economic Growth was the topmost in India (30) while ORF was ranked 53rd worldwide.

ORF was ranked the best Indian think tank in ‘Best Managed Think Tanks’ with a worldwide rank of 51 while the IDSA came second with 71 rank and third Development Alternatives with 74 ranking.

In the ‘Best New Idea or Paradigm Developed by a Think Tank’, ORF was ranked second worldwide, behind Resources for Future, USA.

ORF, which organises Raisina Dialogue and CyFy, was the topmost in India in the Best Think Tank Conference category, with a worldwide ranking of 11. It also came on top in India in the Best Use of Social Networks as well as the top think tank to watch in 2018.

ORF was also the best think tank in ‘Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program’. It again topped the category of Indian ‘Think Tanks with the Best Use of the Internet’ as well as the ‘Best Use of Media (Print)’ and ‘Think Tanks with the Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals’.

Six Cyber Threats to Really Worry About in 2018

By Martin Giles

Hackers are constantly finding new targets and refining the tools they use to break through cyberdefenses. The following are some significant threats to look out for this year. The cyberattack on the Equifax credit reporting agency in 2017, which led to the theft of Social Security numbers, birth dates, and other data on almost half the U.S. population, was a stark reminder that hackers are thinking big when it comes to targets. Other companies that hold lots of sensitive information will be in their sights in 2018. Marc Goodman, a security expert and the author of Future Crimes, thinks data brokers who hold information about things such as people’s personal Web browsing habits will be especially popular targets. “These companies are unregulated, and when one leaks, all hell will break loose,” he says.

10 Conflicts to Watch in 2018 From North Korea to Venezuela, here are the conflicts to watch in 2018.

BY ROBERT MALLEY

It’s not all about Donald Trump.

That’s a statement more easily written than believed, given the U.S. president’s erratic comportment on the world stage — his tweets and taunts, his cavalier disregard of international accords, his readiness to undercut his own diplomats, his odd choice of foes, and his even odder choice of friends. And yet, a more inward-looking United States and a greater international diffusion of power, increasingly militarized foreign policy, and shrinking space for multilateralism and diplomacy are features of the international order that predate the current occupant of the White House and look set to outlast him.

What’s In Store For The Cyber Threat Landscape In 2018 — Be Afraid…..Be Very Afraid; What Are The Potential Sick & Twisted, Dangerous Cyber Attacks We Might See In 2018


Is 2018 the year that America suffers the devastating cyber attack that many experts have been warning about for the past decade? Maybe…..but, let’s hope not. Like economists predicting the next recession, cyber security and national security experts have been warning that America is ripe for a Cyber Pearl Harbor…that has yet to manifest itself. Are we that vulnerable? I am afraid so. But, this kind of devastating attack has not materialized, likely for a number of reasons; and, hopefully, we’ll successfully avoid that kind of event in 2018. Outside of a Black Swan cyber attack, what does the cyber threat landscape in 2018 look like. We can only make an educated guess of course; but, there are some known knowns about where the cyber threat appears to be maturing and, becoming more worrisome.

30 January 2018

Where will our energy come from in 2030, and how green will it be?

Katherine Hamilton
Source Link

How can the energy industry adapt to meet the needs of a growing population while also supporting low-carbon growth? Katherine Hamilton, Director of the Project for Clean Energy and Innovation, and co-chair of the Global Future Council on the Future of Energy, says that this essential transition will not happen without collaboration between large energy companies, entrepreneurs, the finance sector and consumers.

Why should we be thinking about the future of energy?

Life in 2030: these are the 4 things experts can't predict


Alvin Toffler predicted a future in his 1970 bestseller Future Shock that looks much like today’s reality. He anticipated the rise of the internet, the sharing economy, companies built on “adhocracy” rather than centralized bureaucracy, and the broader social confusions and concerns about technology. He foresaw that the evolving relationship between people and technology would shape how societies and economies develop.

26 January 2018

The GOAT, AO2018 and 20th Grand Slam

The GOAT, AO 2018 and 20th Grand Slam
                                                                                  -----   Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The final stages of AO 2018 has arrived. Cilic has reached the finals. The mouth watering contest between the nextgen champion Hyeon Chung, the Professor from South Korea and the GOAT, unarguably in my book, will be in Friday afternoon, being a holiday I cannot miss. The Swiss star is the out-right favourite to win the competition but world number 58 Chung stands in his way of a final showdown against Marin Cilic.

In the remaining semifinals the latest heart throb of South Korea, Hyeon Chung, Next Gen prodigy they’re calling mini-Novak, will be across the net. And in the most ironic of twists, it was Hyeon Chung who sent Djokovic on his way in the fourth round here, out-elasticking his elastic-limbed hero in a stupendous display of scrambling, hustling, counterpunching tennis earlier this week. Make no mistake, a star is emerging. Chung, 21 years old and has never been in the last four of a slam before. But good judges expect him to be in the top 10 before the year’s out.

After upsetting six-time Australian champion Open Novak Djokovic in straight sets became the first South Korean to advance to a grand slam quarter-final. But it wasn’t just the calibre of the opponent that won over a new legion of fans, it was the matter in which the game was won. The braces-wearing, bespectacled world is winning hearts with his boyish innocence, speed, athleticism and freakish retrieval skills. His unbelievable movement has even drawn comparisons with Djokovic, while his fearless ball-striking has delighted the spectators inRod Laver Arena. 

Chung, according to coach Neville Godwin, succeeded in “out-Djokovic-ing Novak Djokovic”. “There are definite similarities, he’s incredibly flexible, moves very well, does the splits most of the time ... but you could argue he [Chung] has got more firepower from the back, he can pull the trigger a bit more. I don’t want him running around too far back behind the court. I’d like to see him use his phenomenal speed to get to the net more.” Hyeon Chung had taken out fourth seed Alexander Zverev in the third round and then disposed of Novak Djokovic in such thrilling style. There were fears that Chung might suffer a dip after two such marquee wins, but he kept his focus in the quarters and disposed of the American Tennys Sandgren in straight sets. Chung has been punching above his weight all fortnight. 

The South Korean will need to try and get into his opponents head claim a shock win. “I think if he starts well and gets inside Federer’s head he will have a chance,” an expert says. “The danger for Federer is he thinks he has already won it. “Nadal is out, Djokovic is out, Murray is not even here. Maybe it’s all too easy for him - that’s the thing he has to be aware of.” These two have never actually played before, but Novak Djokovic has a winning record against Federer, and Chung beat Djokovic on Monday so that makes him the favourite today right? Right?

Even Federer has been impressed. "I'm very excited to play Chung," the Swiss said on Wednesday. "I thought he played an incredible match against Novak. To beat him here is one of the tough things to do in our sport. I know that Novak maybe wasn't at 110 per cent, but he was all right. To close it out, that was mighty impressive."I think it's an interesting match for me. I'll definitely have to look into how I need to play against him because he has some great qualities, especially defensively, like Novak has. "It's a good situation to be in. He can hit freely now. No expectations whatsoever.

The reigning champion is bidding for his 20th grand slam title this week, and is yet to drop a set all tournament. Chung's entertaining approach should at least make for an exciting match even if, as expected, Federer ultimately proves too strong. Though Chung has incredible speed Roger is no slouch either even at 36+ years. Where Chung will be most vulnerable is on his serve, it's not the strongest part of his game. He rarely went over 170 - 180 km/h, Federer will smell the opportunity there and as such, the South Korean is in for some potentially disastrous returns coming his way. Chung's second serve will be punished mercilessly. If he tries to up the ante on his second serve, chances that he will serve some double faults. It will be interesting to see if Roger's versatility can open up Chung's movement and possibly bring him forward with the short slice. Federer's second serve again is the best the game has ever seen. Federer can win even if he plays at 70%. One is not sure whether Chung can win playing 110%.

It looks hugely one-sided. Federer, a 19-time Grand Slam champion and veteran of 382 Slam showdowns over 20 years, up against an unseeded 21-year-old lining up for just his 17th match at a major. At 36 and 169 days, Federer is not only the oldest man in 41 years to reach the semi-finals in Melbourne, but also the only player in history to make the last four on 14 occasions. He’s the champion. He’s the GOAT. He’s been here before. He’s seen it all. Chung will have his work cut out proving he’s the new Djokovic in this one.

Chung is young, has lot of potential. But he has to travel miles before he can take on Roger in a grand slam semis. Best of luck to Chung and thanks for giving all the entertainment.

However, I am worried.

The reigning champion is bidding for his 20th grand slam title this week, and is yet to drop a set all tournament. Strangely enough though, he hasn't actually been playing that well. Sure, he's been cruising through his matches and winning easily, but there's been a bit more irritation than we're used to, and just a little less stardust. The main reason for this could be that Federer has not yet been properly tested. Maybe that's about to change. 

There are worrying signs. Against Berdych, Roger was 4 - 1 down, was serving for the set 5- 3. A set point went begging,Roger was defending for his life,a short backhand to the Czech was asking to be hit and Berdych hit it in the net. At 5 - 6 Roger served two double faults in the same game, was a set point down, got out of jail because of some wonderful shots including an exquisite backhand drop shotthat he can only make and some unforced errors from the Czech. In the third set also the Swiss superstar was broken. At 32 Berdych is not exactly a spring chicken. He was nursing an injury. It was their 10th meeting at Grand Slams, and an eighth win for the Swiss player. His career record against the Czech to 20-6.

In 2015 US Open Cilic had beaten Roger, then in his prime in semifinals in straight sets before winning the only grand slam has taken. Then it was predicted that he was the next best thing happening in tennis. He somehow has not been able to fulfill his promise. He has no apparent weakness, has a monstrous serve, powerful ground strokes, slides : everything. In 2017 Wimbledon finals he had an injury, but in the first set he had a break point, missed an easy backhand. This year he looks healthy, sharp, more determined. Only question mark may be he is too much a gentleman, and does he believe that he can beat GOAT in 2018 AO Finals.

If Roger reaches finals, which he will, he will be worried. Federer may be giving excellent interviews on the courtside with Jim Courier but he has to come out sharp in the finals. His recent tendencies to suddenly lose concentration , make easy mistakes and lose can hurt him dearly. Remember the year end ATP Masters semifinals against Goffin.

We all want Roger to win. GO ROGER GO for 20th grand slam, sixth AO. We will be cheering for you.-

22 January 2018

AO 2018

AO 2018
                                                        --- Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Australian Open (AO) Tennis tournament has reached the second week. Men have been separated from the boys as also women from the girls. Barring some upsets which are normal, more familiar faces are there in the second week for the real battles.

As in recent times the new balls failed to impress. The most touted world number four German A. Zverev was shown the door by the rising young Korean H. Chung in five sets, last in 6-0 ! The German’s miserable run in grand slam tournaments continues. With all his potential he has only one grand slam last 16 in Wimbledon to show. The 6ft 6 inches tall German has all the weapons in his arsenal : a good serve, solid ground strokes, fluent in both flanks specially in his double handed back hand , volleys well, can slice. His mental strength most certainly comes into question, specially after his capitulation at love in fifth set. He was booed off the court as he joins bagel club. More importantly he was slated to meet Roger in semis. And he, amongst very few, has Federer’s number! I am not complaining!

Another young Canadian Shapovalov created stir in last US Open. Where was he this time? Shapovalov fell 6-3, 3-6, 6-1, 6-7 (4), 5-7 to Jo-Wilfried Tsonga in the second round. A young coloured TIAFOE Frances of USA took Roger Federer to five sets in US Open last year and gave him a mighty scare. This year he was dumped out in the first round by Del Potro. The thin hard hitting Rusian teen ager A. Rublev did his rising reputation no harm when he went down fighting and hitting to baby Federer in a close four set match.

The last ATP year end Masters Champion, the Bulgarian G. Dimitrov popularly known as baby Federer because of his similar style has now come out of the shadows of the big man, it seems. The way he has taken out A. Rublev and the mercurial but volatile Aussie N. Kyrgios in a very close four setter, three sets went to tie breaks, augers well for him. He has all the weapons in his bag : a superb service, a powerful one handed back hand, solid ground strokes, slices, ability to change the game and supreme fitness. His next opponent is the Brit K Edmond, who? Potential semifinals with Rafa awaits.

Rafa came to AO 18 without any preparatory tournament. But that has not shown in his game. He is pounding his opponents down with his customary brutal top spin ground strokes. With a sleeve less shirt he has his female fans swooning and opponents fearing his bulging biceps. Today the diminutive 5 ft 7 inches Argentine D. Schwartzman put him under test. Rafa won in four sets, but he made some uncharacteristic unforced errors which will come down.

In the quarterfinals he meets the 6ft 6 inches hard serving powerful Cilic from Croatia. Cilic is only four of the surviving players in this AO 18 with a grand slam trophy. No guess for naming the other three. Guess the number of grand slams the three have got? It is a whopping number, 47. Cilic was the last Wimbledon finalist. He has the game to trouble Rafa, point is has he that will power and believe? Today Rafa was down 0-40 on his serve, nonchalantly he won next five points to win that game. Again no point for guessing which side I will be rooting for. I do not want the gap between the grand slam titles of Rafa and Roger to narrow down!

Nextgen Korean H. Chung awaits Novac Djokovic. Novac is coming back from an injury break. You can see lot of work has been done on him led by Agassi. He has a modified serve action, has added some muscles specially on his legs, his elasticity and ground strokes remain potent. Point is can he survive even he wins the next match against the rising Australian, the fifth seeded Thiem. There is no denying the pedigree of Novac, but even Novac possibly cannot beat the heroics of Roger and Rafa of last year’s AO. We will see.

Roger’s next opponent in round of 16 is a journeyman M. Fucsovics of Hungary. Did you hear his name earlier? He is a smart player, has an all round game, has been a junior champion, will come out swinging freely as he has nothing to lose. But I can’t see him troubling Roger as he does not have some big weapon. Rogers will probably meet the powerful Czech T. Berdych, whom he did beat in Wimbledon semis in a close fought match. But for me Berdych has done a great favour to Roger by taking out the beanpole Argentine Del Potro in straight sets. Del Potro defeated Roger in US Open, had almost beaten Roger in Federer’s backyard Bassel in a close fought final. In present form Federer should win against Berdych, the head to head statistic also demand that. Then either Thiem or Djoker will be standing across the net in the semis.

Roger has not lost a set. He is playing like only he can play. My worry is: some times he loses concentration or something happens and he gets broken. The it becomes very difficult to get back as the other player now knows that the great man is vulnerable. In 2017 year ending ATP Masters Roger was playing like a king, won all his group matches. In the semis his opponent was the Belgian Goffin. The pint sized Belgian has a twinkle feet, has all the shots in the game and was playing well. But Roger was providing a masterclass tennis lesson and won the first set easily. When we were thinking of the finals, all of a sudden Roger shanked couple of shots, netted some easy volleys and was broken. Goffin played a match of his life and did not allow Roger to come back. Where is Goffin now? Do you see him as a grand slam champion?

I am a hopeless fan of Roger, like millions of them world wide. Time is not on his side. We all want to enjoy the show he puts in till it lasts, May some more grand slams come to his basket. Sorry Rafa, I can’t help. You are surely the next best.

The way the German A Kerber is playing I don't see any other women to win AO 18.

Well, did I predict prematurely? Today morning the thin affable Hsieth from Taiwan was leading Kerber 6- 4 and making the only surviving grand slam winner un the women’s draw run around the court like a maniac. At 4-5 Kerber was serving to stay in the match.You don’t become world number 1 and grand slam winner just like that. Kerber held on grimly, her first serve percentage was in high 80s, she broke Hsieth and won the second set 7-5. After that the superior speed, strength, stamina of Kerber held sway. Hsieth known more as a doubles specialist physically could not cope up with those legs of German machins and lost gallantly. Kerber remains on coursr for AO 18 Women’s Champion.

Meanwhile my single handed backhand has improved. It has strated crossing the service line. I shall inform all when my backhand cross court reaches the base line. Till that time I keep watching backhands of Roger, Dimitrov, Thiem, Gasquet not to forget Stan the man.

17 January 2018

Nobody cares for internally displaced people for whom Aadhar Card is of great value.

Five years after the first petition was filed challenging the validity of Aadhaar, a Supreme Court bench headed by Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra will begin final hearing of the petitions against it today. In August, a nine-judge constitution bench headed by then Chief Justice of India J S Khehar had ruled that privacy was a fundamental right guaranteed under the Constitution. Now the government has to convince the Supreme Court that forcing citizens to give a sample of their fingerprints and their iris scan does not violate privacy. The petitioners are challenging the nature of information collected, which includes biometrics, and its alleged unlimited use by government agencies. A recent report in The Tribune had exposed how access to the Aadhaar database could be bought on the internet only for Rs 500.

Today Nandan Nilekani, the father of Aadhar has written an excellent article in Times of India. It should clarify lot of cobwebs in the mind of doubting Thomases.

It would be most beneficial to a large number of our poor people who are internally displaced and move to cities/ J&K or Punjab for livelihood. There is no ration card or other identity cards for them to access the benefits government gives them. In this cacophony it is these poor people of our country who are getting sidelined. 

There are some excellent schemes of the government for the marginalized people. I request you to check, for example from your domestic helps: whether they have Aadhar card, ration card. Bank account in jan dhan yojana, Insurance and other benefits the government gives. The domestic helps are in better position then the others.

While the NPAs of banks are in thousands of crores courtesy Anil Ambani, Ruia. Aggarwal and host of other big wigs ask any of these poor people hoe the banks treat them if they want loan. What is the accountability of these bank officers who have sanctioned theses NPA loans.

My country cries.

              ---- Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)


We’re all in this together: Aadhaar isn’t building a surveillance dystopia, it asserts your individual identity vis-à-vis the state

John F Kennedy popularised an important idea from one of GK Chesterton’s books, known as Chesterton’s Fence. Imagine a fence in the middle of a road. Chesterton postulated that the modern reformist who sees no point of the fence, must first figure out why it is there, before proposing to destroy it. If you don’t know why the fence exists, you should be humble enough to admit you don’t know enough to change it. Self-regulating communities such as Wikipedia uphold Chesterton’s fence as a way to temper ugly debates and encourage empathy for opposing views.

When we started the Aadhaar project in 2009, we had a clean slate. Instead of jumping right in, we spent a lot of time understanding how ID systems work around the world, the trade-offs between a central database and a smart card, how ration cards are being used in India, models for enrollment, etc. We recruited some of the brightest in the world to help us research the possibilities, challenges and opportunities of building Aadhaar. In other words, we studied the fence. The quality of the debate on Aadhaar today would be a lot better, if all of us could do the same.

First of all, the need for Aadhaar arose because Indians did not have a universally acceptable, portable, unique identification. Ration cards, the most popular ID before Aadhaar, varied from state to state. Many included a photo only of the head of the household. This meant dependents didn’t have their own individual ID. This particularly impacted women and minor children. Aadhaar promised to be a unique, individual identification to empower every individual – woman, child or man – and who were increasingly migrant and mobile.

Second, getting an ID and its associated entitlements was rife with corruption. The state relied on the use of BPL (below poverty-line) cards issued by its own offices. Since these cards became the de facto passport to many entitlements, they also became a focus point for corruption. To get a BPL card usually meant a bribe of Rs 5,000 or more. In India, the sad irony was that you had to be rich enough to get a BPL card. Aadhaar promised to be free for every individual, and enrollments would not be restricted to government operators only.

Third, Aadhaar was designed for inclusion – it included transgender as an option, did not ask women for their husband’s or father’s name, it didn’t need an address proof in case you were homeless or even a proof for your age. The express objective was to give an ID to as many residents as possible. Enrollment could be done anytime, anywhere. The inclusion mandate has driven many decisions within UIDAI. The latest fusion face matching authentication demonstrates UIDAI’s continued commitment to evolve solutions that include, not exclude.

Fourth, inclusive IDs serve no purpose if they are not verifiably unique. India’s many ID systems before Aadhaar were plagued with fake records and duplicates. Developed nations have a robust birth registry system, predicated on the fact that almost all their births take place inside a hospital. India, unfortunately, does not have this. Hence, centralised biometrics was the only option to deduplicate and increase trust in Aadhaar. The use of the yes/no only biometric authentication through registered devices, provides a safe and privacy protecting way of authenticating identity.

Fifth, not just inclusion, privacy by design was another guiding tenet for Aadhaar. We built this into the architecture, and to this day, UIDAI will only know that you used your Aadhaar for authentication. It won’t know why or where. Linking to Aadhaar is not a two-way process. When you link your bank account to your Aadhaar, for example, UIDAI gets no data back from your bank. Further, UIDAI responded to the needs of the public and introduced mandatory tokenisation and Virtual IDs. This is a first for any national ID system, and a giant leap for protecting user privacy.

Sixth, the government’s push to link Aadhaar is often oversimplified as simply removing ‘ghosts’ from the system. Most experts wrongly project their simplistic understanding of Aadhaar on to the UIDAI’s intention. Aadhaar is not just about removing ghosts, it is the backbone of digitisation of old systems, that brings numerous benefits. Consider a ration shop. If every end transaction is linked to an Aadhaar number and verified by authentication, suddenly the entire backward supply chain becomes transparent and auditable and rations are accessible from any shop. Neither the shopkeeper nor the wholesaler can fudge the digitally signed authentication from UIDAI.

The problem with the discourse today is that some modern reformists either don’t or don’t want to understand the history and context within which Aadhaar was conceived. Moreover, they are eager to paint UIDAI as either thoroughly incompetent – unable to keep its ship from leaking – or alternatively, a sinister organisation eager to build a surveillance dystopia.

I want to emphasise that it is neither. UIDAI is a hard working group of committed individuals doing their best to evolve an empowering identity solution for 1.3 billion Indians without compromising user privacy or excluding them from services. Aadhaar is not a surveillance tool by the state, on the contrary, it is an assertion of your individual identity vis-à-vis the state. Like it or not, we’re all in this together to achieve opportunity, development and empowerment of our billion people, even if we disagree on how exactly to get there.

15 January 2018

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building : Part - III

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building
Part - III

- Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)

Military Diplomacy 

Military diplomacy is an important adjunct of diplomacy. The military has earned tremendous good will of armies the world over for their professionalism. Over the recent past, armies of the US, the UK, France, Russia and a host of others have conducted joint training exercises to exchange military tactics and gain from experience of the Indian Armed Forces. In United Nations peace keeping operations the Indian Army has earned much appreciation of the local populations and armies of different countries for their helpful attitude, humane approach and expertise in WHAM operations. 

However, whenever the need arose to battle any rogue elements they have resorted to minimum force despite suffering casualties. Examples of their valour are many; the award of the Param Vir Chakra to Captain G S Salaria (posthumously), in Congo for his daredevil action is one such of many others. The military training imparted at the officers' academies and various schools of instruction are most sought after and subscribed by a host of foreign countries. The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun has to date, trained 1397 cadets from over 15 friendly foreign countries. In addition, with our expertise a number of military training academies have been raised in different countries. The professional courses at the Army War College, Defence Services Staff College, Wellington and the National Defence College, New Delhi and other defence institutes are reputed internationally.

We are being wooed by both the US and its allies and China with both sides trying to align us with themselves. In such a situation, military diplomacy, which is an extension of diplomacy by other means, has a crucial role in furthering our national interests. Carrying out joint military training with important players in the arena sends out signals which are most keenly watched and interpreted by the others. While we are keen to stay non aligned and preserve our autonomous decision making capability, it should not stop us from assuming the mantle of leadership in protecting common regional interests. Drug trafficking, piracy, protection of global commons and disaster relief are areas wherein the smaller nations of the region are hoping that India will take the lead. Our contribution to UN peacekeeping operations has enhanced our image in the eyes of the world. In all the peacekeeping missions across the globe, our military has acquitted itself admirably, resulting in greater demand for Indian troops wherever trouble has erupted lately and the UN decides to send its troops. Indian forces are seen as firm, fair, just and balanced in their approach, thus enhancing the image of the Country.

National Integration

There are few countries in the world that can boast of the kind of cultural, religious, regional, ethnic, linguistic, historical, economic and social diversity that is the hallmark of India. Every few miles one notices a change in topography associated with a change in dialect, custom and lifestyle. Throughout history, India has been known for being exposed to and for being able to assimilate within itself a plethora of socio-cultural impulses. 

Right from its inception, primarily in the form of British forces, the Indian army has been a symbol of multiculturalism and pluralism beautifully held together by the bonds of camaraderie in times of danger and an inherent discipline that flows from the highest to the lowest echelons. They have been known to safeguard the life and honour of people who are neither their kith nor their kin. Those that they protect they love not, those that they fight they hate not, yet they perform their duty without question, without complaint. In the line of their duty, they stand together with people who come from a variety of social, cultural, economic and ideological backgrounds, yet they come across as one uniform force with the singular aim of standing on sentinel duty to protect the integrity of their motherland.

The structure, the placement and the movement of the forces within the country ensures that the pan Indian identity within the forces is promoted and the regional identities are subdued albeit in a positive manner. The stationing of forces from the South in the rigorous terrain of Jammu and Kashmir, for instance, exposes them to the culture of the beautiful State. The help and service that they render to the people of the region endears them to the local populace who in turn become more accepting of people from other regions. All this promotes national integration.

The soldier of the Indian army is taught to respect the sentiments and traditions of all religions and regions of the country. No matter what part of the country the soldiers are posted to, they have no problems whatsoever in adapting to their local customs and traditions. This ability is also exhibited during the routine practice of the “Mandir Parade” wherein rituals of all religions are practiced and observed under the guidance of trained religious teachers. Promotion of national integration among the people of the country is one of the primary aims of the Indian Army since peace and development within the country is also a mandate given to the security forces.

The Sainik Schools that have been opened all over the country and activities carried out under the ambit of the National Cadet Corps, bring young boys and girls of different parts of the country together on a single platform in a fairly cohesive manner. The experience gained and the exposure received by the youth in the course of such activities opens their minds to new vistas and possibilities; it also instills in them pride for their country, its ideology and its achievements. Their horizons are broadened and they view themselves as citizens of a strong Nation rather than a small peripheral state or an obscure village. The Indian army thus serves as a vehicle for the promotion of national integration among the people of the country at large.

Conclusion 

Chanakya told the Emperor of Magadh:

“The Mauryan soldier is the very basis, the silent and barely visible cornerstone, of our fame, culture, physical well-being and prosperity; in short, of the entire nation building activity.”

It is apparent that the military’s role in nation building is inherent in the fulfillment of its primary function. The spin offs from the role are many and varied with a fairly extensive coverage. The Army has always in the past and also in the future will continue to play a pivotal role in the Nation Building and for that it must emerge as a national symbol that represents the nation's unique characteristic which is “Unity in Diversity”. The military virtues of sacrifice, loyalty and discipline have always remained and must serve as objects of veneration for the rest of the nation.

The Army has and will continue to remain a steadfast partner in nation building with contribution in the spheres of security, infrastructural development, disaster management, aid to civil authorities, ecology and education.

14 January 2018

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building : Part - II

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building
Part - II

- Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)

Aid to Civil Authorities and Disaster Management 

Indian Army is the first responder in ant natural calamities in the country. Army is called out regularly for flood relief all over the country. Indian Army has removed bodies buried under the rubble of earthquakes at Latur and Dharchula and landslides at Kedar Nath and other places in the Kumaon Hills. Army coped with determination in the aftermath of the South East Asian Tsunami in December 2004. Our jawans have risked their lives in cyclonic storms in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to bring succour to the suffering countrymen. Army has often provided essential services during strikes, has taken medical aid to remote corners of the country, has braved epidemics and plagues. He has quelled communal disturbances and riots. In the past, it has not been uncommon to find the Country coming to a stop due to a strike in some vital sector of the economy or the other. Trade unions in the railways, oil sector, transportation sector etc. have held the Nation hostage bringing the economy to a grinding halt. In all such emergencies, it is the military with its limited resources which has come forward to run the essential services and keep the wheels of economy moving. 

Operation Sadbhavana. The Army continues to play a critical role in bringing peace to regions where misguided youth choose to take up arms against the nation. This onerous responsibility has been undertaken by the army with utmost responsibility and maturity. Not only have many areas been rid of violence and fear of terrorism, succour has also been provided by undertaking extensive public support programmes like Operation Sadbhavana and Operation Samaritan. From building of roads, schools, public health facilities, vocational facilities, schools, sporting facilities and provisioning essential supplies, the army has been at the forefront of nation building in these troubled areas. 

Border Roads Organisation (BRO). The army has also been at the forefront of helping build the country through developmental initiatives. Amongst some of the most important contributions to the task of nation building, has been the untiring efforts of the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) in connecting the far flung areas of the country with the national mainstream. Areas which were considered distant and desolate are very much a part of the network of roads created by BRO. Working in the most difficult and harshest of conditions, the efforts put in by these dedicated men of the BRO have linked the hearts of the people of the country through thousands of kilometers of roads paved and maintained despite life threatening conditions. Peering into the future, the task ahead is colossal and requires a great deal of focus, resources and disciplined manpower to execute this humongous task that shall shape the infrastructure in the remotest and inaccessible parts of the country. 

Territorial Army(TA). The Territorial Army has contributed immensely to the task of nation building through the years. These battalions have assisted in securing vital interests in threatened regions. They have undertaken re forestation initiatives and have transformed large swathes of land which had been ravaged by natural and man made disasters. The home and hearth battalions have been at the forefront of soldiering in some of the most sensitive areas of the country. They have not only fought against difficult military odds, but have also provided a helping hand to the local administration, helping bring peace and stability in their areas of responsibility. 

The concept of Ecological Task Force (ETF) was first initiated by the Indian government in 1980 to undertake ecological restoration work in terrains rendered difficult either due to remote location, severe degradation or risky law-and-order situations. The other important objective of this project was to promote and provide meaningful employment to local ex-servicemen in the Territorial Army. Set up in 1982, the Territorial Army’s Ecological Task Force (ETF) is the world’s first ecological battalion. From saving deforested hills from desertification to transforming abandoned mines into lush green forests, the ETF has done it all! 

The spectacular successes of the ETFs in the Shivalik hills and the Thar desert prompted the other State Governments to partner with the central government and establish similar battalions in other ecologically degraded parts of the country like Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Assam etc. At present, India has eight ETF battalions (of nearly 1,000 men each) are located at Dehradun, Shri Mohangarh, Delhi, Samba, Kufri, Pithoragarh, Sonitpur and Kokrajhar. 

In the last three decades, ETF battalions have planted and cared for over 6 crore saplings and covered more than 70000 hectares of land, with a 70-80% survival rate. This is a significant contribution, especially when this has been achieved in areas with inhospitable terrain, harsh weather and the ever-looming threat of insurgent attacks.At a time when military in the developed countries have just started taking an interest in climate change mitigation, the Indian Army has set an outstanding example for others to emulate. It’s time we acknowledged these unsung foot soldiers and their role in ensuring that our country remains clean and green. 

National Cadet Corps (NCC). A more visible manifestation of the army’s nation-building role is the National Cadet Corps. It is engaged in grooming the youth, imbibing in them the qualities of discipline, selfless service and the spirit of nationalism. All the ideals that shape our forces are instilled in the young minds to develop their character, through qualities like comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and ideals of selfless service. This shall shape the value system of the future generations and hence has a direct bearing on the moral quotient of the nation building effort. 

Ex-Serviceman (ESM). The ex-serviceman’s qualitative contribution to civilian life, by way of invigorating its culture and character and their quantitative contribution especially to rural economy is something which has not been assessed so far. But significant though this contribution is, it is only a very small part of the contribution they can make to national economy if their services are utilized in agriculture and industry in an organized manner. This highly disciplined and patriotic human resource should be utilised in the capacity building efforts of the nation in various spheres through a focussed approach to employable training and other vocational skillsets that can be leveraged for the nation building effort. There is also immense scope in deploying this manpower in playing an integral role in the harmonising of efforts of Government, NGOs and CSR activities towards improving the quantitative and qualitative deliverables at the ground level. 

The Indian Army, with at least 13 million troops, discharges some 50,000 trained soldiers back to the hinterland. These men bring with them a national outlook, skills that the army taught them, and the secular world view they have experienced during their stint in the forces. This resource if properly harnessed, can make a significant contribution to nation building. The benefit that the armed forces give to the community is the pool of disciplined, well-trained young men and women. Thousands of ex-servicemen have returned to their native villages and started entrepreneurial ventures leveraging their competencies. 

Defence Industrial Base. We need the best capabilities and latest technology for our Army. India started with nearly no capability of indigenised capacities and yet we were confronted with conflict at the outset of our journey as an independent country. As a country we created a capability through our Defence Public Sector Undertakings(DPSU) and Ordnance Factories. We have thirty nine Ordnance factories and nine DPSUs. The Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) brought about the scientific support. There are fifty two research labs carrying out R&D on weapon systems ranging from armaments, aeronautics, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, materials and life sciences. Permeation of technology is not constrained by ownership and spreads its reach to all areas of human endeavour. Spin off effect of this process towards many aspects of nation building has been immense. Most technologies that were designed for warfare have extensive non-military use. The Internet, nuclear power, space programmes, deep oceanic mapping and transcontinental communications are just some of the examples. Looking ahead the trends are obvious that the Defence Industrial base would be further strengthened with wider participation by the vibrant private sector enterprise of the nation.. Our indigenous efforts have indeed yielded results in increasing the nation’s self-reliance but there is a case to do much more by harmonising the efforts of all the stake holders. 

India’s DPSUs employ an approximate work force of 2,00,000. Ordnance Factories also employ huge number of people. 

India’s target to increase the contribution of manufacturing sector to 25% of GDP, would get a big boost with greater number of defence projects being given to indigenous defence industry under Buy (Indian- IDDM), “Make” and Buy and Make (India) categories. It is also estimated that it will give boost to employment opportunities with both direct and indirect jobs. In next five years, as per Boston Consulting group there is a scope of creation of 1 million jobs within next five years with approx 0.5 million indirect jobs. Nasscom Deloitte study on contrary suggests that in a high technology sector for every one direct job created in defence sector, there would be 4 x indirect jobs created in sectors supporting defence sector. 

The defence procurement and the offset policy is another example of how our defence expenditure can contribute to nation-building. The current defence budget has a procurement component of Rs54,800 crore, which will be used to purchase state-of-the-art equipment. Around 70% of this is in the form of imports. The procurement policy lays down the provision of “offsets”, which essentially mandates that the seller of the armament has to buy or provision up to 50% of the cost of the weapon platform from Indian manufacturers. This ensures that a sizeable percentage of money spent on defence procurement is ploughed back into the economy. The offset structure also incentivizes collaboration with Indian partners to indigenize substantial parts of the equipment to fulfil the offset obligation, thereby facilitating technology transfer into Indian industries. Global firms are expected to channelize up to $20 billion in 10 years into India. This creates very interesting opportunities. 

Our defence budget also consists of regular revenue expenditure in the form of salaries, allowances and sustenance costs of maintaining an army. Food has to be bought, roads have to be built, vehicles need to ply and the agricultural produce of several thousand villages goes to maintaining garrisons stationed all over the country. An entire ecosystem thrives on maintaining and mobilizing the defence forces. Cantonment towns are examples of cities which have been fuelled by defence establishments that literally created them.

13 January 2018

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building : Part - I

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building
Part - I

- Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)
Introduction

"The Mauryan soldier does not himself the Royal treasuries enrich nor does he the Royal granaries fill… The soldier only and merely ensures that… He is thus the very basis and silent, barely visible cornerstone of our fame, culture, physical well-being and prosperity; in short, of the entire nation building activity.”  - Chanakya, to the King of Magadh.

The Concept of Nation Building was originally used by American political scientists after World War II to describe the need for integration of the state and society as an inescapable step for national growth. Nation building referred to the efforts of newly independent nations, notably the nations of Asia and Africa, to reshape territories that had been carved out by colonial powers or Empires without regard to ethnic, religious, or other boundaries. These reformed states later on became viable and coherent national entities because of their nation building efforts aimed at establishing a national identity for themselves. This was needed to be deliberately constructed by moulding different ethnic groups into a nation, especially since in many newly established states colonial practices of divide and rule had resulted in ethnically heterogeneous populations. 

Nation states are political units in an international system and they represent the citizens aspiration to be grouped in a single political unit that would in turn act as an instrument to achieve, life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. So the process of Nation Building by any nation aims at the unification of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run. 

The 21st century looks towards security, justice, economic development and a democratic polity as the pillars of nation building. Security comes first in the pecking order because the other three pillars function effectively only if the security threshold on the nation, both internal and external, remains intact. This in turn facilitates smooth functioning of democracy and brings in its wake social justice and economic development.

In India, democracy has managed to hold and the constitution as initially introduced continues to be sacrosanct. This has been facilitated, by no small measure, by the armed forces who have maintained, most scrupulously, the ideals enshrined in the constitution and have made a great contribution towards nourishment of democracy in the nation. The strength of the armed forces lies in their high standards of discipline and morale supported by a secular outlook and an apolitical demeanour. They have, in the highest spirit of nationalism, stepped forward to face all challenges posed to the nation and have been a pillar of support to the people who look up to them in times of crisis. The capability of the nation to maintain its most significant pillar of security, has contributed significantly to the progress that it has recorded post independence. The Army with their ingrained spirit of Nationhood can certainly play a significant role in fostering the spirit of ‘inclusive growth’ as enunciated by Government. The Army have been a symbol of unity and secularism through turbulent times faced by the country and have fostered the spirit of One-India, like no other organ of the state. Be it the sectarian clashes, terrorism or insurgency, the Army have maintained their ethos; an ethos that has proved to be a strong fabric for National Integration. 

The Indian army has always devoted itself to being able to successfully carry out any of the roles that the elected government has allotted to it. The prime and major role is clear - defend the nation against its potential enemies. This per se is not a nation building function but it is the absolute pre requisite for nation building. To fulfill this primary role, the requirement is that the army are in readiness to defend the nation at all times. In a rapidly changing security matrix this role of the army needs to be further strengthened. 

Stitching the Nation Together

The British followed the path of least resistance by leaving the status of 600 odd princely states within the union ambiguous and unsettled while announcing India’s Independence. It required the vision of India’s first Home Minister Sardar Patel to make these states accede to the Indian Union and turn the country into one cohesive whole. He used the soft power of the nascent state to request, persuade and cajole these states to become part of India. However, the benign presence of Indian Army was always there in the background as a symbol of hard power. Sardar Patel did not hesitate to use hard power of the Indian Army to those couple of states which did not see the logic and refused to accede to Indian Union. Indian Army spearheaded the effort to integrate Junagadh (1947), Hyderabad (Operation Polo, 1948), Goa (Operation Vijay, 1961) and Sikkim (1975) with the Indian Union. Army participated in the interventions in the Maldives and Sri Lanka at the behest of the governments of these countries. Without the intervention of Indian Army the geography of the country would have been totally different. Army’s role in nation building has been outstanding.

Indian Army has participated in peace-keeping operations and earned the gratitude of beleaguered people from Korea to the Congo, from Kampuchea to Bosnia-Herzegovina.

it was the Indian Army on which the nation relied to bring in a semblance of order in the mayhem and massacres of hundreds of thousands that took place during mass scale migration of people in Punjab and Bengal post the announcement of the Radcliffe award on partition of the country. The invasion of J&K by Pakistan aided, abetted and supported by razakars in 1947-48 was thwarted by the Indian Army despite a last minute entry when the attackers were knocking at the gates of Srinagar. Similar attempts by Pakistan in 1965, 1971 and 1999 met with the same fate, thanks to the heroic efforts of the Indian military. In fact, ignominious dismemberment of Pakistan and surrender of 90,000-93,000 Pakistani officers and men in 1971 added a glorious chapter to the history of the Indian Army and gave the Country something to be proud of. All these victories have been achieved by the military in service of the Nation through supreme sacrifices and at a tremendous cost to life and material itself. 

Counter Insurgency Operations

Insurgencies in different parts of the Country have been a regular feature since the time we became Independent in 1947. Separatism, communalism, sectarianism, naxalism and Left Wing Extremism have been raising their ugly heads from time to time, striking at the roots of the very unity of the Country. Externally abetted proxy wars like the current one in J&K are a constant attempt to undermine the integrity of the Country. Despite heavy odds, it is the Indian military which has kept the concept of One India alive. In tackling these insurgencies and fighting proxy wars, it has suffered more casualties than it did during the entire Second World War. In fact, the Indian state has always used the Army as an instrument of last resort when all other means have failed. It is to the credit of the Army that it has invariably delivered in all difficult situations. Our countrymen recognise this contribution and therefore have tremendous respect and admiration for the military. Not many countries can boast of many successful counter insurgency operations like India have in Mizoram and other North Eastern states and Punjab. Some other operations are well under control.

9 January 2018

The books you should read, according to professors from Princeton, Harvard and Yale

The Books You Should Read, According to Professors from Princeton, Harvard and Yale

--  Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)


Now a days at the end of the year list of top books read/recommended by eminent people are published specially during the year end.

College professors dole out an incredible amount of required reading to their students.

But what if they could only choose one book?

When asked, professors at America's most prestigious colleges shared the single book they think every student should read in 2017. 

The topics of the books spanned issues from politics to social science to Shakespearean literature.

Read on to see what professors from schools like Princeton, Harvard, and Yale think you should read this year.

Jill Abramson, Harvard: 'The Paranoid Style in American Politics,' by Richard Hofstadter

Abramson, a former executive editor of The New York Times and current Harvard English lecturer, recommends students read Richard Hofstadter's "The Paranoid Style in American Politics," first published in 1964.

Abramson says the book is "everything you need to know about the root of Donald Trump's rhetoric and fake news."

James Berger, Yale: 'Orfeo,' by Richard Power

James Berger is a senior Lecturer in English and American Studies at Yale University. He recommends the 2014 novel "Orfeo," by Richard Powers.

He implores students to read the book, explaining that:

"It is a story of music and genetics in our contemporary age of terror and surveillance. An idiosyncratic retelling of the Orpheus myth, an elderly avant garde composer who feels he has tried and exhausted every possible musical experiment, returns to his first love, biology, and seeks to inscribe a musical score onto the mutating DNA of bacteria. Yup.

"But his efforts are mistaken to be acts of bioterrorism, and so he flees into the 'underworld' of contemporary America, returning also to the various Euridices of his past. Amazing book —and you'll learn a hell of a lot about music, science, politics ... and even about Life!"

Eric Maskin, Harvard, and Maurice Schweitzer, UPenn: 'The Undoing Project,' by Michael Lewis

Eric Maskin is a Harvard professor and received the 2007 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics. Maurice Schweitzer is a professor of operations, information, and decisions at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.

Both chose Michael Lewis' "The Undoing Project."

David B. Carter, Princeton: 'The Strategy of Conflict,' by Thomas Schelling

David B. Carter is a politics professor at Princeton University. He recommended "The Strategy of Conflict," by Thomas Schelling, especially given the author's recent death. He said:

"'The Strategy of Conflict' is both probably the best book ever written about conflict and still very useful and important for understanding strategic interaction among states (and individuals).

"It also happens to be a very well-written and readable book. I read it as a junior in college and it was instrumental in getting me interested in international relations more generally, and in understanding conflict behavior and strategy in particular. I know it is an old book, but think it is something that anyone would benefit from reading."

WJT Mitchell, U Chicago: 'A Theory of the Drone,' by Gregoire Chamayou

WJT Mitchell is an English and Art History professor at the University of Chicago.

He recommends a book by French philosopher Gregoire Chamayou called "A Theory of the Drone," which attempts to understand how drones have revolutionized warfare.

Mitchell describes the book as:

"A very intelligent assessment of the new conditions ofdrone warfare in their implications for just war theory and notions of military valor."

Kenneth Warren, U Chicago: 'Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life,' by Karen E. Fields and Barbara J. Fields.Racecraft

Kenneth Warren is an English professor at The University of Chicago.

He recommends "Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life," by Karen E. Fields and Barbara J. Fields saying, "given the resurgence of questions about race in American society I think everyone should take a look at the 2014 book."
Harold Bloom, Yale: Shakespeare

Harold Bloom, an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale, kept it short and sweet saying students should read, "all of Shakespeare."

Have you read any of the above mentioned books?